As part of an effective organisational change plan, your CEO has asked every department head to review their systems, processes, and practices critically. Accordingly, you have been asked to review an area of HR practice and provide key stakeholders with recommendations on how to improve it. To form the basis of your report, you are required to review secondary sources relevant to the area of practice you have chosen. In this report, you should describe your stakeholders’ needs and provide them with a mix of narrative and diagrammatic forms. Precisely, you should:
- Choose an area of HR practice and explain your choice
- Identify and critically review three secondary sources: research digests, academic and professional literature, online databases, and critical texts relevant to the chosen area.
- Describe the stages of the research process.
- Outline some of the different primary research approaches and discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
- Using your review of the different
- secondary sources, summarise critical findings, draw meaningful conclusions, and recommend sustaining and/or improving practice, including costs and timeframes for implementation. Describe how these recommendations would be presented to stakeholders.
A summary of the report
Training and development is an HR practice that needs improvement, especially since employees need to improve their skills and knowledge. The changing nature of the workplace requires employees to adapt, and this can only be achieved by implementing more training programs. Therefore, developing and implementing new ideas would be easier, enhancing innovativeness and creativity and making the organisation perform better. To help the CEO improve the practice, it is necessary to evaluate credibility and reliability before selecting evaluation sources.
The role of HR in enhancing training and development programmes to improve employee performance
Learning/training and development are HR practices that have been found to have a profound impact on the performance and productivity of employees. Learning becomes part of what the organisation does when the employees are motivated and involved, which produces positive outcomes from the employees and the organisations they work for. The choice of the training and development practice for study and analysis in this report was crucial since employees are always learning. New skills are gained when training and development programs are implemented, which help the employees understand how they can address issues in the organisation and achieve company goals and objectives. The addition of new skills and knowledge increases employee satisfaction and appreciation and their involvement in the achievement of the organisation’s strategic objectives. A CEO should also associate with improved methods of promoting learning to foster better relations with employees to improve performance.
1.1 Purpose and objectives of the research
During the research, the HR department tries to explain how it can encourage and promote training and development within the organisation to improve the performance of the employees. Among the specific objectives are:
- Finding out how much training and development improves employee satisfaction
- Assessing whether training and development enhanced employee innovativeness towards improving performance
- To determine whether training and development influence employee behaviour
1.2 The key stakeholders
Stakeholders within this perspective are those involved in the development of the training programmes within an organisation and those who ensure that employees are learning and gaining new skills. Identifying the stakeholders who are involved in supporting the HR department in developing training and development programs is shown in the following diagram.
2.0 Review of the literature
There are four specific stakeholder groups. The management group is the most important, as they are responsible for all training sessions for each employee. It may be that the senior management is involved in developing the training programs to meet the needs of the employees and the Human Resources department. There are also sponsors to consider. The management approaches and identifies these individuals to provide the organisation with the support it needs, including financial support and training resources. An additional group of stakeholders in the training and development personnel or team, which includes the training manager or leader and the facilitators. The trainees are the final group of stakeholders. This group consists of employees who are going to undergo training. They are the employees whose training needs have been identified and for whom training has been scheduled to improve their performance.
2.1 Training and development to enhance employee satisfaction
The effects of employee training and development on organisational performance were studied by Khan et al. (2016). The authors also investigated the relationship between training and employee satisfaction. The research was conducted among employees in Pakistan’s telecom sector to determine how they can deliver the best results towards securing alternatives that will prepare them for the challenges they are likely to face in their line of work. Specifically, the research aims to discover whether training and development would enhance the performance of employees within an organisation. In addition, we also aim to examine the relationship between training and employee satisfaction to enhance employee development.
They conducted a literature review on employee performance and how training facilitates it. Additionally, the literature focuses on changes in the development of old skills into new skills and changes in behaviour that facilitate change and improve employees’ morale. In addition, a review of job satisfaction and its relationship to employee performance is also assessed, which is in line with Guan and Frenkel’s (2019) study, which shows that improved employee satisfaction impacts performance levels.
Khan et al. (2016) developed questionnaires using quantitative research methodology. The researchers collected information from respondents using self-administered questionnaires. Participants in the study included management and customer service representatives. The participants came from the Telecom industry, and convenience sampling was used, where each individual volunteered to participate. In the research, only three variables were taken into consideration, and these were employee satisfaction, employee performance, and training and development.
2.2 The relationship between employee innovation and training
Research conducted by Abdullah et al. (2014) explained that as employees are considered the backbone of organisations, they should receive training to develop their skills and knowledge. This article explains the relationship between employee training and innovation in small businesses. The labour market should be keen to identify with the most fundamental aspects of innovativeness and creativity to reach competitiveness. As a result, Camps et al. (2016) believe that this improves the working environment by enhancing employee flexibility.
In light of the authors’ literature review, an evaluation of the employee innovativeness framework has been carried out, focusing on the stages of innovativeness. As a result of the initiation stage, opportunities for exploration are identified, and ideas are generated. The implementation stage follows the initiation stage and is concerned with promoting ideas and implementing them to influence social behaviour (Eldor and Harpaz, 2016). The purpose of this is to address the issues experienced by businesses and to develop solutions to the problems that these organisations may face.
Abdullah and his colleagues utilised a cross-sectional survey method to collect data. The respondents were identified using non-random sampling techniques, and questionnaires were administered with 42 questions regarding the relationship between training and innovation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Based on the analysis, we found that employees develop innovative behaviour through training, enabling them to perform their duties in a manner that meets the needs of the work environment.
2.3 The influence of training and development on employee behaviour
Saleem, Shahid, and Naseem (2011) conducted a study on the influence of training on the development of employees’ behaviour, and they described the training as a process where employees learn skills for the future. Skills assist in adapting to new technologies and gaining knowledge that will assist in meeting future challenges and addressing them. They added that trainers work closely with learners to prepare them to become experts in their work for the organisation. Saleem, Shafid, and Naseem (2011) argue that employees will become more productive when training is well done. They will get to associate with the proper knowledge to help them succeed in the organisation. They will also become loyal to the company. Therefore, when making training decisions, the human resources department needs to consider the issues that would produce a positive return on investment (Al Ali et al., 2014).
The authors employed quantitative research in which questionnaires were administered to employees of various sectors of the economy. Researchers were compelled to use this kind of methodology because the selected economic sectors (banks and financials, pharmacy, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs)) require personnel who are well trained to fulfil their tasks and obligations from the businesses they work for. According to the researchers, the employee training and development in organisations led to changes in behaviour, with high-performance records compared to the performances before training. According to An et al. (2018), organisations that provide employee training are better positioned to influence employees’ behaviour. It is also the responsibility of trainers to provide feedback to employees.
3.0 Critique of literature review
3.1 Justification of research selection
The study by Khan et al. (2016) is practical because the researchers provide information on what management can do to improve employees’ performance after training. With the results obtained by Khan and his colleagues, the management is responsible for ensuring that the employees can adapt to the new training and development program. The management analyses situations where performance is not in line with expectations and facilitates the development of opportunities to meet learning needs. In order to accomplish this, the management has to meet with the employees. Meetings are a good way to accomplish this.
In the study by Abdulla et al. (2014), the training perspective is explained in terms of its benefits to the employees of small businesses. Thus, this is an excellent source of explaining the basics of training and its benefits to employees. Training has many benefits, including increased efficiencies, the ability of organisations to adapt to ever-changing technologies, greater satisfaction levels among employees who have received training, and changes in employee behaviour.
Naseem, Saleem, and Shahid (2011) researched because they wanted to determine the primary purposes of training and how they impact employee performance. Through training, employees become motivated and gain the motivation to perform better. Therefore, the human resource development team is responsible for ensuring that the right strategies are followed in identifying the right kinds of training needs for the employees.
3.2 The advantages and disadvantages of the research selected
The research by Khan et al. (2016) is a recent study conducted by different authors and dedicated to a specific company for study. This is an advantage since it indicates that the researchers evaluated the important aspects enhancing successful completion. The disadvantage of this research is that only three variables were used, which means that the research was lacking in detail. Considering more variables is the best way to change the situation and ensure that the best results are obtained.
Among the benefits of Abdulla et al. (2014)’s research is that the methodology used in collecting information related to the study was very effective. The article describes the dimensions of innovation as an exploration of opportunities, generation of ideas, promotion of ideas, and implementation of ideas. There are essential aspects that both management and HR in an organisation should identify with to maximise employee performance. Therefore, it is an advantage that the source would greatly benefit our organisation. The disadvantage of the source is that the method of data analysis, which is SPSS, is not easily understandable.
Saleem, Shahid, and Naseem (2011) were selected because their research identified with the results showing changes in behaviour from the training and development of employees. However, the research has a disadvantage because the authors haven’t developed an excellent methodology to conduct the study. A second disadvantage is that the research was conducted more than five years ago, and there may have been better results developed from the same in the recent past, opposed to the findings of Saleem, Shahid, and Naseem (2011).
3.3 Business applications of research
As a result of Khan et al. (2016)’s study, organisational stakeholders will be better able to realise their potential and meet their expectations, thereby improving competitive advantage. The authors’ ideas are relevant to the current trend of employees recognising the necessity of improving their skills and knowledge in organisations. Consequently, new performance methods can be achieved, which directly correlates with new methods of solving business problems. Through the implementation of training and development programs, performance is improved.
According to Abdulla et al. (2014), the purpose of their research is to explain how training affects employee competitiveness and innovativeness. Therefore, HR should use this resource to guide them on the benefits of providing training to help them develop new mechanisms that will enhance how performance and operations are handled.
Research by Saleem, Shahid, and Naseem (2011) demonstrates the importance of training and development in influencing employee behaviour and HR’s role in facilitating such changes. In addition, it’s essential to consider different types of training strategies, including in-house training and off-site training, to ensure employees have the skills to succeed at their jobs.
4.0 Presentation of findings
In order to identify how specific HR should involve employees in the different aspects of training to enhance employee performance, the following materials will be used to present the findings to stakeholders, as described in the following table.
|Stakeholders||Level of interest||Method of giving feedback|
|Management and HR||High||Meetings between the management and with employees|
|Training and development personnel||High||Meetings and reports|
A well-trained employee is more likely to be satisfied. As a result, satisfaction enhances employee motivation and results in new ways to address problems within the organisation. Employees who receive training become more innovative and creative as well. To ensure that they deliver according to expectations, they develop ideas and implement them. In addition, training and development lead to improved performance by employees. It is a significant problem that has to do with improving how employees’ behaviours are affected, for the most part positively. In some cases, employees seek to find new ways to do things, which enhances their self-confidence and improves performance. Therefore, the CEO needs to make sure that the senior management and they identify the best training programs for the employees and facilitate development opportunities to support them in all ways possible.
The CEO’s responsibility is to ensure that, in conjunction with senior management and the supervisors, an employee survey is conducted to identify employee learning needs. In this case, learning gaps are identified, and programs are developed to help close the gap and ensure that the needs are fully addressed. The first recommendation would result in higher employee satisfaction and motivation, thereby improving employee performance.
To ensure that the company’s performance is higher than that of competing firms, the CEO should motivate employees to innovate. Therefore, training must be offered according to individual, team, and organisational needs. This will motivate the CEO and senior managers to support the employees by investing in training and development, knowing that they will generate a return on investment.
Finally, the CEO should involve the HR department in improving training and development practices. It involves identifying the various methods through which a changing culture can be identified, with new skills and knowledge developed to address the needs of the employees. As a result, a culture of positive behaviour is born and a positive mindset for employees and all other stakeholders of the organisation.
Abdullah, NH, Oing, LL, Wahab, E & Shamsuddin, A. (2014), Perception on Training and Employee Innovativeness: An Evidence from small firms, IEEE
Al Ali, R. A. A. M., Yusoff, R. M., Ismail, F. B., & Kazi, A. G. (2018). The Effect of Training on Employees’ Productivity in Public Organizations in UAE. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Research, 1(1), 15-18.
An, S. H., Meier, K. J., Bøllingtoft, A., & Andersen, L. B. (2019). Employee perceived effect of leadership training: Comparing public and private organisations. International Public Management Journal, 22(1), 2-28.
Camps, J., Oltra, V., Aldás‐Manzano, J., Buenaventura‐Vera, G., & Torres‐Carballo, F. (2016). Individual performance in turbulent environments: The role of organisational learning capability and employee flexibility. Human resource management, 55(3), 363-383.
Eldor, L., & Harpaz, I. (2016). A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its relationship with extra‐role performance behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(2), 213-235.
Guan, X., & Frenkel, S. (2019). How perceptions of training impact employee performance. Personnel Review.
Khan, AA, Abbasi, SB, Waseem, RM, Ayaz, M, & Ijaz, M. (2016), Impact of training and development of employees on employee performance through job satisfaction: A study of telecom sector of Pakistan. Business Management and Strategy 7 (1), pp 29-46
Saleem, Q, Shahid, M & Naseem, A (2011), Degree of influence of training and development on employee behaviour, International Journal of Computing and Business Research, 2 (3).